Bookmark and Share
BioAssay: AID 686991

Luminescence-based cell-based high throughput dose response assay to identify activators of the function of SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2 (SMARCA2, BRM)

Name: Luminescence-based cell-based high throughput dose response assay to identify activators of the function of SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2 (SMARCA2, BRM). ..more
_
   
 Tested Compounds
 Tested Compounds
All(228)
 
 
Active(14)
 
 
Inactive(214)
 
 
 Tested Substances
 Tested Substances
All(228)
 
 
Active(14)
 
 
Inactive(214)
 
 
AID: 686991
Data Source: The Scripps Research Institute Molecular Screening Center (BRM_ACT_LUMI_1536_3XEC50 DRUN)
BioAssay Type: Confirmatory, Concentration-Response Relationship Observed
Depositor Category: NIH Molecular Libraries Probe Production Network
Deposit Date: 2013-05-21

Data Table ( Complete ):           View Active Data    View All Data
Target
BioActive Compounds: 14
Related Experiments
AIDNameTypeComment
652017Luminescence-based cell-based primary high throughput screening assay to identify activators of the function of SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2 (SMARCA2, BRM)Screeningdepositor-specified cross reference: Primary Assay (BRM ACT in singlicate)
652022Summary of the probe development effort to identify activators of the function of SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2 (SMARCA2, BRM)Summarydepositor-specified cross reference: Summary
652260Luminescence-based cell-based primary high throughput confirmation assay to identify activators of the function of SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2 (SMARCA2, BRM)Screeningdepositor-specified cross reference: Confirmation (BRM ACT in triplicate)
686939Counterscreen for activators of the function of SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2 (SMARCA2, BRM): Luminescence-based cell-based high throughput screening assay to identify non-selective compounds using the VP16 reporter assayScreeningdepositor-specified cross reference: Counterscreen (VP16 ACT in triplicate)
720660On Hold
720661On Hold
686995Counterscreen for activators of the function of SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2 (SMARCA2, BRM): Luminescence-based cell-based high throughput dose response assay to identify non-selective compounds using the VP16 reporter assayConfirmatorysame project related to Summary assay
Description:
Source (MLPCN Center Name): The Scripps Research Institute Molecular Screening Center
Affiliation: The Scripps Research Institute, TSRI
Assay Provider: David Reisman, University of Florida
Network: Molecular Library Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN)
Grant Proposal Number 1R03DA028854-01
Grant Proposal PI: David Reisman
External Assay ID: BRM_ACT_LUMI_1536_3XEC50 DRUN

Name: Luminescence-based cell-based high throughput dose response assay to identify activators of the function of SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2 (SMARCA2, BRM).

Description:

The protein encoded by the BRM gene (SMARCA2, SNF2, SWI2) is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is highly similar to the brahma protein of Drosophila (1). Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes (2). The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. BRM is an epigenetically suppressed anti-cancer gene, which is silenced in wide variety of solid tumors (2). Because BRM function is key for growth control, restoring its expression routinely inhibits cancer cell growth. For this reason, restoring BRM has potential as an anticancer therapeutic modality (3-4). Its expression prevents cancer development as seen in murine models system where BRM loss potentiates cancer development 10-fold (5). It is known from preliminary studies that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are found to restore BRM expression in cancer cell lines, but not its function (2). However, BRM is involved in many pathways and required by numerous transcription factors which control development, differentiation, DNA repair, adhesion, and growth control (6). As such, the impact of inactivating BRM and/or restoring its expression goes well beyond growth control (7).

Although pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are found to restore BRM expression, but not its function in cancer cell lines, specific inhibitors of either HDAC3 or HDAC9, as well as the transcription factor GATA3 and/or MEF2D, induce a functional BRM. These other constituents involved in BRM regulation may also be the molecular targets. However, since HDAC9 and GATA3 are highly overexpressed and given the limited scope of expression of HDAC9, these proteins would be preferred targets. The fact that each are highly over-expressed is akin to EGFR in lung cancer or HER2 in breast cancer. Candidate compounds that are positive on the primary screen will be re-screened using our counter-screen, where BRM has been suppressed using anti-BRM shRNA (MG2-KDM). We have found that even the most potent inducers of BRM, are blocked by at least 50% or more by this assay. Hence, false positives will yield readouts of luciferase activity that show >50% inductions, closely approximating the levels found in the primary BRM (MG213) screen and will not have inductions <50% as observed with essentially all BRM-specific inducers.

Compounds will be then be verified as positive hits by a series of assays beginning with a third confirmatory (dose response) screening. Following the dose response screening, hits will be screened by directly measuring BRM induction by qPCR since the BRM gene is controlled by transcription. Additionally, we will determine the relative specificity the hits identified by screening each for its potential to induce a number (~10) of BRM-dependent genes. Since each of these BRM-dependent genes are controlled by different signal transduction pathways, interference in one or more cellular pathways (due to lack of specificity for BRM) will be demonstrated by a lack or reduced induction of one or more of the BRM-dependent genes. Moreover, the level of induction observed for each BRM-dependent gene is an indirect marker for the potency of BRM induction.

A secondary goal of this project is to group these verified compounds based upon their relative site of action in the pathway of BRM induction. We will use a secondary assay to differentiate compounds affecting upstream and downstream sections in the regulatory pathway. A possible additional screen will then be optionally performed using cells harboring anti-HDAC2 shRNA (MGH2KD cells). Since the deacetylation of BRM is a requirement for function thus generating a luciferase signal in these reporter cells, only the compound(s) that affect higher-level regulatory genes (such as MAP kinase inhibition) will be identified with a positive result using this assay. For those compounds having an impact lower in the pathway, we will use them to determine if they inhibit BRN2, GATA3, HDAC3, MEF2D, or perhaps HDAC9, thereby assisting us in determining which motifs of the compound underlie the re-expression of BRM. After this series of screens, all hits will then undergo a series of secondary assays to determine how well they restore BRM expression and its function in BRM-deficient cell lines. The assay provider will explore these secondary MOA studies in additional collaboration beyond the scope of this CPDP.

References:

1. Bourachot, B., M. Yaniv, and C. Muchardt, The activity of mammalian brm/SNF2alpha is dependent on a high-mobility-group protein I/Y-like DNA binding domain. Mol Cell Biol, 1999. 19(6): p. 3931-9.
2. Glaros, S., et al., The reversible epigenetic silencing of BRM: implications for clinical targeted therapy. Oncogene, 2007. 26(49): p. 7058-66.
3. Reisman, D., S. Glaros, and E.A. Thompson, The SWI/SNF complex and cancer. Oncogene, 2009. 28(14): p. 1653-68.
4. Reyes, J.C., et al., Altered control of cellular proliferation in the absence of mammalian brahma (SNF2alpha). EMBO J, 1998. 17(23): p. 6979-91.
5. Liu, G., et al., Two novel BRM insertion promoter sequence variants are associated with loss of BRM expression and lung cancer risk. Oncogene, 2011. 30(29): p. 3295-304.
6. Coisy-Quivy, M., et al., Role for Brm in cell growth control. Cancer Res, 2006. 66(10): p. 5069-76.
7. Gramling, S., et al., Pharmacologic reversal of epigenetic silencing of the anticancer protein BRM: a novel targeted treatment strategy. Oncogene, 2011. 30(29): p. 3289-94.

Keywords:

DRUN, dose response, triplicate, titration, dilution BRM, SMARCA, SMARCA2, SWI/SNF, ATPase, gene, transcription, regulator, MG213, reporter, activate, activator, inducer, increase, lumi, luc, luminescence, luciferase, cell, cell-based, dexamethasone, HTS, high throughput screen, 1536, Scripps, Scripps Florida, MLSMR, The Scripps Research Institute Molecular Screening Center, SRIMSC, Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network, MLPCN.
Protocol
Assay Overview:

The purpose of this assay is to identify compounds that act as activators (re-activators) of BRM function. This assay relies on the fact that BRM assists the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in activating the MMTV promoter, which is used to drive expression of a luciferase reporter gene (7). Compounds active in this assay will restore BRM function, allowing the SWI/SNF-dependent GR to induce the MMTV promoter, leading to increased luciferase expression and well luminescence. MG213 cells are incubated in the presence of 0.1 uM Dexamethasone for 24 hours prior to be plated in 1536-well plates at 600 cells/well in 5 ul media with Dexamethasone using Kalypsys dispenser. The cells are immediately pinned with 45 nL of compound, control or DMSO, spun down, and incubated overnight at 37 C. Test compounds compound are delivered to the plates containing the MG213 cells and dexamethasone using pintool. Chembridge 5306793 is included as a positive control on each plate. OneGlo luciferase reagent is used according to the manufacturer's directions. Luminescence is measured using the Viewlux plate reader. Compounds are tested in singlicate at a final nominal concentration of 9.1 uM. Note that the cell line used for this assay has been transduced with the E1A gene, which produces the viral oncoprotein, E1A. This protein sequesters Rb (and Rb2) protein thus preventing cellular growth inhibition. At lower densities, these newly modified cells have a more linear growth rate and do not lag when plated at low density. At higher densities (which typically impacts normal cell growth via contact inhibition), these cells maintain their growth rate allowing these cells to grow to higher densities. This modified cell line allows for a greater experimental range for this assay and improves its performance (consistency) as compared to the parental MG213 cells. Compounds are tested in triplicate using a 10-point 1:3 dilution series starting at a maximum nomimal test concentration of 91.2 uM.

Protocol Summary:

The MG132 cell line was routinely cultured in T-175 sq cm flasks at 37 C and 95% relative humidity (RH). The growth media consisted of RPMI -1640 supplemented with 5% v/v certified fetal bovine serum, 500 ug/mL Geneticin, and 1X antibiotic mix (penicillin, streptomycin, and neomycin).

Prior to the start of the assay 600 cells in a 5 ul volume of assay media (growth media as above except without geneticin and with 2.5% FBS and 0.1uM Dexamethasone) were dispensed into each well of 1536-well tissue culture-treated microtiter plates. The assay was started immediately by dispensing 45 nL of test compound in DMSO (0.69 % final DMSO concentration), DMSO alone, or CB5306793 to the appropriate wells. Next, the plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37 C (5% CO2, 95% RH). The assay was stopped by dispensing 5 ul of One Glo luciferase substrate to each well, followed by incubation at room temperature for 15 minutes. Well luminescence was measured on the ViewLux plate reader.

The percent activation for each compound was calculated as follows:

%Activation = ( 1 - ( ( Test_Compound - Median_High_Control ) / ( Median_Low_Control - Median_High_Control ) ) ) * 100

Where:

Test_Compound is defined as wells containing test compound.
Low_Control is defined as wells containing DMSO.
High_Control is defined as wells containing CB5306793.

PubChem Activity Outcome and Score:
For each test compound, percent activation was plotted against compound concentration. A four parameter equation describing a sigmoidal dose-response curve was then fitted with adjustable baseline using Assay Explorer software (Accelrys Inc). The reported EC50 values were generated from fitted curves by solving for the X-intercept value at the 50% activation level of the Y-intercept value. In cases where the highest concentration tested (i.e. 91.2 uM) did not result in greater than 50% activation, the EC50 was determined manually as greater than 91.2 uM.

Compounds with an EC50 greater than 10 uM were considered inactive.
Compounds with an EC50 equal to or less than 10 uM were considered active.

The PubChem Activity Score range for active compounds is 100-90, and for inactive compounds 89-0.

List of Reagents:

MG132 cell line (provided by Assay Provider)
RPMI-1640 medium (Invitrogen, 11875-119
Geneticin (Invitrogen, part 10131-035)
100X Penicillin-Streptomycin-Neomycin mix (Invitrogen, part 15640-055)
Trypsin-EDTA solution (Invitrogen, part 25200-056)
Fetal Bovine Serum (Invitrogen, part 16000-044)
One Glo Assay Kit (Promega, part E6130/QTE30675 )
CB5306793, Chembridge
T-175 tissue culture flasks (Corning, part 431080)
1536-well plates (Corning, part 789173)
Comment
Due to the increasing size of the MLPCN compound library, this assay may have been run as two or more separate campaigns, each campaign testing a unique set of compounds. In this case the results of each separate campaign were assigned "Active/Inactive" status based upon that campaign's specific compound activity cutoff value. All data reported were normalized on a per-plate basis. Possible artifacts of this assay can include, but are not limited to: dust or lint located in or on wells of the microtiter plate, compounds that non-specifically modulate luciferase activity, and compounds that quench or emit luminescence within the well. All test compound concentrations reported are nominal; the specific concentration for a particular test compound may vary based upon the actual sample provided by the MLSMR. The MLSMR was not able to provide all compounds selected for testing in this assay.
Categorized Comment - additional comments and annotations
From BioAssay Depositor:
Assay: CurveFit [1]: Equation: =( ( [Maximal Response] * [Concentration]^[Hill Slope] ) / ( [Inflection Point Concentration]^[Hill Slope] + [Concentration]^[Hill Slope] ) ) + [Baseline Response]
Assay: CurveFit [1]: Mask: Excluded Points
Assay: Dictionary: Version: 0.1
From PubChem:
Assay Format: Cell-based
Assay Cell Type: MG213
From ChEMBL:
Assay Format: Cell-based
Assay Type: Functional
Result Definitions
Show more
TIDNameDescriptionHistogramTypeUnit
OutcomeThe BioAssay activity outcomeOutcome
ScoreThe BioAssay activity ranking scoreInteger
1QualifierActivity Qualifier identifies if the resultant data EC50 came from a fitted curve or was determined manually to be less than or greater than its listed EC50 concentration.String
2EC50*The concentration at which 50 percent of the activity in the inhibitor assay is observed; (EC50) shown in micromolar.FloatμM
3LogEC50Log10 of the qualified EC50 (EC50) from the inhibitor assay in M concentrationFloat
4Maximal ResponseThe maximal or asymptotic response above the baseline as concentration increases without bound.Float
5Baseline ResponseAdjustable baseline of the curve fit, minimal response value.Float
6Inflection Point ConcentrationThe concentration value for the inflection point of the curve.FloatμM
7Hill SlopeThe variable HillSlope describes the steepness of the curve. This variable is called the Hill slope, the slope factor, or the Hill coefficient. If it is positive, the curve increases as X increases. If it is negative, the curve decreases as X increases. A standard sigmoid dose-response curve (previous equation) has a Hill Slope of 1.0. When HillSlope is less than 1.0, the curve is more shallow. When HillSlope is greater than 1.0, the curve is steeper. The Hill slope has no units.Float
8Response RangeThe range of Y.Float
9Chi SquareA measure for the 'goodness' of a fit. The chi-square test (Snedecor and Cochran, 1989) is used to test if a sample of data came from a population with a specific distribution.Float
10RsquareThis statistic measures how successful the fit explains the variation of the data; R-square is the square of the correlation between the response values and the predicted response values.Float
11Number of DataPointsOverall number of data points of normalized percent activation that was used for calculations (includes all concentration points); in some cases a data point can be excluded as outlier.Integer
12Excluded PointsFlags to indicate which of the dose-response points were excluded from analysis. (1) means the point was excluded and (0) means the point was not excluded.String
13Activation at 0.0046 uM [1] (0.0046μM**)Value of %activation at 0.0046 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
14Activation at 0.0046 uM [2] (0.0046μM**)Value of %activation at 0.0046 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
15Activation at 0.0046 uM [3] (0.0046μM**)Value of %activation at 0.0046 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%
16Activation at 0.014 uM [1] (0.014μM**)Value of %activation at 0.014 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
17Activation at 0.014 uM [2] (0.014μM**)Value of %activation at 0.014 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
18Activation at 0.014 uM [3] (0.014μM**)Value of %activation at 0.014 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%
19Activation at 0.042 uM [1] (0.042μM**)Value of %activation at 0.042 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
20Activation at 0.042 uM [2] (0.042μM**)Value of %activation at 0.042 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
21Activation at 0.042 uM [3] (0.042μM**)Value of %activation at 0.042 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%
22Activation at 0.12 uM [1] (0.12μM**)Value of %activation at 0.12 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
23Activation at 0.12 uM [2] (0.12μM**)Value of %activation at 0.12 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
24Activation at 0.12 uM [3] (0.12μM**)Value of %activation at 0.12 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%
25Activation at 0.13 uM [1] (0.13μM**)Value of %activation at 0.13 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
26Activation at 0.13 uM [2] (0.13μM**)Value of %activation at 0.13 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
27Activation at 0.13 uM [3] (0.13μM**)Value of %activation at 0.13 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%
28Activation at 0.37 uM [1] (0.37μM**)Value of %activation at 0.37 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
29Activation at 0.37 uM [2] (0.37μM**)Value of %activation at 0.37 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
30Activation at 0.37 uM [3] (0.37μM**)Value of %activation at 0.37 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%
31Activation at 0.38 uM [1] (0.38μM**)Value of %activation at 0.38 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
32Activation at 0.38 uM [2] (0.38μM**)Value of %activation at 0.38 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
33Activation at 0.38 uM [3] (0.38μM**)Value of %activation at 0.38 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%
34Activation at 1.1 uM [1] (1.1μM**)Value of %activation at 1.1 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
35Activation at 1.1 uM [2] (1.1μM**)Value of %activation at 1.1 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
36Activation at 1.1 uM [3] (1.1μM**)Value of %activation at 1.1 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%
37Activation at 3.4 uM [1] (3.4μM**)Value of %activation at 3.4 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
38Activation at 3.4 uM [2] (3.4μM**)Value of %activation at 3.4 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
39Activation at 3.4 uM [3] (3.4μM**)Value of %activation at 3.4 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%
40Activation at 10.1 uM [1] (10.1μM**)Value of %activation at 10.1 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
41Activation at 10.1 uM [2] (10.1μM**)Value of %activation at 10.1 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
42Activation at 10.1 uM [3] (10.1μM**)Value of %activation at 10.1 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%
43Activation at 30.3 uM [1] (30.3μM**)Value of %activation at 30.3 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
44Activation at 30.3 uM [2] (30.3μM**)Value of %activation at 30.3 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
45Activation at 30.3 uM [3] (30.3μM**)Value of %activation at 30.3 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%
46Activation at 30.4 uM [1] (30.4μM**)Value of %activation at 30.4 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
47Activation at 30.4 uM [2] (30.4μM**)Value of %activation at 30.4 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
48Activation at 30.4 uM [3] (30.4μM**)Value of %activation at 30.4 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%
49Activation at 91 uM [1] (91μM**)Value of %activation at 91 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
50Activation at 91 uM [2] (91μM**)Value of %activation at 91 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
51Activation at 91 uM [3] (91μM**)Value of %activation at 91 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%
52Activation at 91.1 uM [1] (91.1μM**)Value of %activation at 91.1 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
53Activation at 91.1 uM [2] (91.1μM**)Value of %activation at 91.1 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
54Activation at 91.1 uM [3] (91.1μM**)Value of %activation at 91.1 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%
55Activation at 91.2 uM [1] (91.2μM**)Value of %activation at 91.2 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
56Activation at 91.2 uM [2] (91.2μM**)Value of %activation at 91.2 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
57Activation at 91.2 uM [3] (91.2μM**)Value of %activation at 91.2 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%
58Activation at 91.3 uM [1] (91.3μM**)Value of %activation at 91.3 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [1]Float%
59Activation at 91.3 uM [2] (91.3μM**)Value of %activation at 91.3 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [2]Float%
60Activation at 91.3 uM [3] (91.3μM**)Value of %activation at 91.3 micromolar activator concentration; replicate [3]Float%

* Activity Concentration. ** Test Concentration.
Additional Information
Grant Number: 1R03DA028854-01

Data Table (Concise)
Data Table ( Complete ):     View Active Data    View All Data
Classification
PageFrom: