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BioAssay: AID 449774

Late stage counterscreen results from the probe development efforts to identify common IMP-1 and VIM-2 inhibitors: wildtype E. coli growth inhibition dose response assay (MIC: minimum inhibitory concentration)

Name: Late stage counterscreen results from the probe development efforts to identify common IMP-1 and VIM- 2 inhibitors: wildtype E. coli growth inhibition dose response assay (MIC: minimum inhibitory concentration). ..more
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AID: 449774
Data Source: The Scripps Research Institute Molecular Screening Center (BL21-WILDTYPE-ECOLI_INH_ABS_0384_3XMICSAR Round 0)
Depositor Category: NIH Molecular Libraries Probe Production Network
BioAssay Version:
Deposit Date: 2010-07-26
Hold-until Date: 2011-07-20
Modify Date: 2013-01-04

Data Table ( Complete ):           View Active Data    View All Data
BioActive Compounds: 7
Related Experiments
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AIDNameTypeProbeComment
1527Primary biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamaseScreening depositor-specified cross reference: Primary screen (VIM-2 inhibitors in singlicate)
1556Epi-absorbance primary biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of IMP-1 metallo-beta-lactamaseScreening depositor-specified cross reference: Primary screen(IMP-1 inhibitors in singlicate)
1854Summary of probe development efforts to identify selective inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamaseSummary1 depositor-specified cross reference: Summary (TEM-1 inhibitors)
2184Epi-absorbance-based counterscreen assay for common VIM-2 and IMP-1 inhibitors: biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of TEM-1 serine-beta-lactamase.Screening depositor-specified cross reference: Counterscreen (TEM-1 inhibitors in triplicate)
2187Epi-absorbance-based confirmation assay for common VIM-2 and IMP-1 inhibitors: biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase.Screening depositor-specified cross reference: Confirmation screen (VIM-2 inhibitors in triplicate)
2189Epi-absorbance-based confirmation assay for common IMP-1 and VIM-2 inhibitors: biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of IMP-1 metallo-beta-lactamase.Screening depositor-specified cross reference: Confirmation screen (IMP-1 inhibitors in triplicate)
2715Summary of probe development efforts to identify common inhibitors of VIM-2 and IMP-1 metallo-beta-lactamases (IMP-1 inhibitors)Summary depositor-specified cross reference: Summary (IMP-1 inhibitors)
2754Epi-absorbance-based dose response assay for common IMP-1 and VIM-2 inhibitors: biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamaseConfirmatory depositor-specified cross reference: Dose response (VIM-2 inhibitors in triplicate)
2755Epi-absorbance-based dose response assay for common IMP-1 and VIM-2 inhibitors: biochemical high throughput counterscreen to identify inhibitors of TEM-1 metallo-beta-lactamaseConfirmatory depositor-specified cross reference: Dose response counterscreen (TEM-1 inhibitors in triplicate)
2756Epi-absorbance-based dose response assay for common IMP-1 and VIM-2 inhibitors: biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of IMP-1metallo-beta-lactamaseConfirmatory depositor-specified cross reference: Dose response (IMP-1 inhibitors in triplicate)
2767Late stage counterscreen results from the probe development effort to identify common IMP-1 and VIM-2 inhibitors: Epi-absorbance-based biochemical dose response assay for inhibitors of TEM-1 metallo-beta-lactamaseConfirmatory depositor-specified cross reference: Dose response counterscreen (TEM-1 inhibitors in triplicate)
2768Late stage results from the probe development effort to identify common IMP-1 and VIM-2 inhibitors: Epi-absorbance-based biochemical dose response assay for inhibitors of IMP-1metallo-beta-lactamaseConfirmatory depositor-specified cross reference: Dose response (IMP-1 inihibitors in triplicate)
2769Late stage results from the probe development effort to identify common IMP-1 and VIM-2 inhibitors: Epi-absorbance-based biochemical dose response assay for inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamaseConfirmatory depositor-specified cross reference: Dose response (VIM-2 inhibitors in triplicate)
463099Late stage assay provider counterscreen results from the probe development efforts to identify common IMP-1 and VIM-2 inhibitors: IMP1-transformed E. coli growth inhibition dose response assay in the presence of imipenemOther depositor-specified cross reference
463100Late stage assay provider counterscreen results from the probe development efforts to identify common IMP-1 and VIM-2 inhibitors: VIM-2-transformed E. coli growth inhibition dose response assay in the presence of imipenemOther depositor-specified cross reference
1856Epi-absorbance-based counterscreen for selective VIM-2 inhibitors: biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of IMP-1 metallo-beta-lactamase.Screening same project related to Summary assay
1857FRET-based counterscreen assay for selective VIM-2 inhibitors: biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify epi-absorbance assay artifactsScreening same project related to Summary assay
1860Epi-absorbance-based confirmation biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify selective inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase.Screening same project related to Summary assay
1866Epi-absorbance-based counterscreen assay for selective VIM-2 inhibitors: biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of TEM-1 serine-beta-lactamase.Screening same project related to Summary assay
1919Epi-absorbance-based dose response biochemical high throughput screening assay for selective inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamaseConfirmatory same project related to Summary assay
1920Epi-absorbance-based counterscreen for selective VIM-2 inhibitors: dose response biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of IMP-1 metallo-beta-lactamase.Confirmatory same project related to Summary assay
1925Epi-absorbance-based counterscreen for selective VIM-2 inhibitors: dose response biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of TEM-1 serine-beta-lactamase.Confirmatory same project related to Summary assay
1926FRET-based counterscreen for selective VIM-2 inhibitors: dose response biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify epi-absorbance assay artifacts.Confirmatory same project related to Summary assay
1927FRET-based counterscreen for selective VIM-2 inhibitors: dose response biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of IMP-1 metallo-beta-lactamase.Confirmatory same project related to Summary assay
2128Late stage results from the probe development efforts to identify selective inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase: probe resultsOther same project related to Summary assay
2317Late stage results from the probe development efforts to identify selective inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase: Prior art resultsScreening same project related to Summary assay
2319Late stage results from the probe development efforts to identify selective inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase: probe resultsOther same project related to Summary assay
504620Late stage assay provider results from the probe development efforts to identify selective inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase: VIM-2-transformed E. coli growth inhibition in the presence of imipenem (synergy)Confirmatory same project related to Summary assay
624079Late stage assay provider results from the probe development efforts to identify nonselective inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase: Absorbance-based biochemical assays to determine the ability of probe candidates and selected analogs to inhibit VIM-2Confirmatory1 same project related to Summary assay
624080Late stage assay provider results from the probe development efforts to identify inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase (nonselective): Growth inhibition of clinically relevant VIM-2 transformed P. aeruginosa (PA641) in the presence of imipenem (synergy)Other same project related to Summary assay
624081Late stage assay provider results from the probe development efforts to identify inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase (nonselective): VIM-2-transformed E. coli growth inhibition in the presence of imipenem (synergy)Other1 same project related to Summary assay
624082Late stage assay provider results from the probe development efforts to identify inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase (nonselective): Growth inhibition of clinically relevant New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-transformed K. pneumoniae (BAA-2146) in the presence of imipenem (synergy)Other same project related to Summary assay
624083Late stage assay provider results from the probe development efforts to identify nonselective inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase: Absorbance-based biochemical assays to determine the ability of probe candidates and selected analogs to inhibit VIM-2Confirmatory1 same project related to Summary assay
624084Late stage assay provider results from the probe development efforts to identify nonselective inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase: Absorbance-based biochemical assays to determine the ability of probe candidates and selected analogs to inhibit IMP-1Confirmatory1 same project related to Summary assay
624085Late stage assay provider results from the probe development efforts to identify nonselective inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase: Absorbance-based biochemical assays to determine the ability of probe candidates and selected analogs to inhibit IMP-1Confirmatory1 same project related to Summary assay
624090Late stage assay provider results from the probe development efforts to identify nonselective inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase: Absorbance-based biochemical assays to determine the ability of probe candidates and selected analogs to inhibit AmpCConfirmatory same project related to Summary assay
624092Late stage assay provider results from the probe development efforts to identify nonselective inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase: Absorbance-based biochemical assays to determine the ability of probe candidates and selected analogs to inhibit TEM-1Confirmatory same project related to Summary assay
624095Late stage assay provider results from the probe development efforts to identify inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase (nonselective): Growth inhibition of clinically relevant IMP-1 transformed P. aeruginosa (KN20) in the presence of imipenem (synergy)Other same project related to Summary assay
624096Late stage assay provider results from the probe development efforts to identify inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase (nonselective): Growth inhibition of clinically relevant VIM-2-transformed Acinetobacter species (YMC07/8/B3323) in the presence of imipenem (synergy)Other2 same project related to Summary assay
624097Late stage assay provider results from the probe development efforts to identify inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase (nonselective):IMP-1-transformed E. coli growth inhibition in the presence of imipenem (synergy)Other1 same project related to Summary assay
Description:
Source (MLPCN Center Name): The Scripps Research Institute Molecular Screening Center (SRIMSC)
Center Affiliation: The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI)
Assay Provider: Peter Hodder, TSRI
Network: Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN)
Grant Proposal Number: 1 R21 NS059451-01 Fast Track
Grant Proposal PI: Peter Hodder, TSRI
External Assay ID: BL21-WILDTYPE-ECOLI_INH_ABS_0384_3XMICSAR Round 0

Name: Late stage counterscreen results from the probe development efforts to identify common IMP-1 and VIM- 2 inhibitors: wildtype E. coli growth inhibition dose response assay (MIC: minimum inhibitory concentration).

Description:

The emergence of gram-negative bacteria that exhibit multi-drug resistance, combined with the paucity of new antibiotics, poses a public health challenge (1). The production of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes, in particular, is a common mechanism of drug resistance (2-4). The beta-lactamases evolved from bacteria with resistance to naturally-occurring beta-lactams or penams (5), agents which inhibit the transpeptidase involved in cell wall biosynthesis (6). Human medicine adapted these agents into synthetic antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams that contain a 2-azetidone ring (5, 7). The metallobeta- lactamases (MBL) are zinc-dependent class B beta-lactamases that hydrolyze the beta-lactam ring, rendering the antibiotic ineffective (6, 8). Increasingly, nosocomial beta-lactam antibiotic resistance arises in P. aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and other pathogenic bacteria via gene transfer of B1 MBLs (4, 9), including IMP (active on IMiPenem) (10) and VIM (Verona IMipenemase) (11, 12). For two of these enzymes, VIM-2 and IMP-1, no inhibitors exist for clinical use (6, 9). Thus, the identification of MBL inhibitors would provide useful tools for reducing nosocomial infections and elucidating their mechanism of action (13).

References:

1. Siegel, R.E., Emerging gram-negative antibiotic resistance: daunting challenges, declining sensitivities, and dire consequences. Respir Care, 2008. 53(4): p. 471-9.
2. Gupta, V., An update on newer beta-lactamases. Indian J Med Res, 2007. 126(5): p. 417-27.
3. Bradford, P.A., Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in the 21st century: characterization, epidemiology, and detection of this important resistance threat. Clin Microbiol Rev, 2001. 14(4): p. 933-51, table of contents.
4. Sacha, P., Wieczorek, P., Hauschild, T., Zorawski, M., Olszanska, D., and Tryniszewska, E., Metallobeta- lactamases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa--a novel mechanism resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Folia Histochem Cytobiol, 2008. 46(2): p. 137-42.
5. Koch, A.L., Bacterial wall as target for attack: past, present, and future research. Clin Microbiol Rev, 2003. 16(4): p. 673-87.
6. Jin, W., Arakawa, Y., Yasuzawa, H., Taki, T., Hashiguchi, R., Mitsutani, K., Shoga, A., Yamaguchi, Y., Kurosaki, H., Shibata, N., Ohta, M., and Goto, M., Comparative study of the inhibition of metallo-beta-lactamases
(IMP-1 and VIM-2) by thiol compounds that contain a hydrophobic group. Biol Pharm Bull, 2004. 27(6): p. 851-6.
7. Abeylath, S.C. and Turos, E., Drug delivery approaches to overcome bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2008. 5(9): p. 931-49.
8. Wang, Z., Fast, W., Valentine, A.M., and Benkovic, S.J., Metallo-beta-lactamase: structure and mechanism. Curr Opin Chem Biol, 1999. 3(5): p. 614-22.
9. Walsh, T.R., Toleman, M.A., Poirel, L., and Nordmann, P., Metallo-beta-lactamases: the quiet before the storm? Clin Microbiol Rev, 2005. 18(2): p. 306-25.
10. Hirakata, Y., Izumikawa, K., Yamaguchi, T., Takemura, H., Tanaka, H., Yoshida, R., Matsuda, J., Nakano, M., Tomono, K., Maesaki, S., Kaku, M., Yamada, Y., Kamihira, S., and Kohno, S., Rapid detection and evaluation of clinical characteristics of emerging multiple-drug-resistant gram-negative rods carrying the metallobeta-lactamase gene blaIMP. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 1998. 42(8): p. 2006-11.
11. Lauretti, L., Riccio, M.L., Mazzariol, A., Cornaglia, G., Amicosante, G., Fontana, R., and Rossolini,G.M., Cloning and characterization of blaVIM, a new integron-borne metallo-beta-lactamase gene from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 1999. 43(7): p. 1584-90.
12. Wang, C.X. and Mi, Z.H., Imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing IMP-1 metallo-betalactamases and lacking the outer-membrane protein OprD. J Med Microbiol, 2006. 55(Pt 3): p. 353-4.
13. Zuck P, O'Donnell GT, Cassaday J, Chase P, Hodder P, Strulovici B, Ferrer M. Miniaturization of absorbance assays using the fluorescent properties of white microplates. Anal Biochem. 2005 Jul 15;342 (2):254-9.

Keywords:

late stage, SAR, powders, purchased, IMP-1, VIM-2, TEM-1, beta-lactamase, antibiotic resistance, bacteria, dose response, counterscreen, MIC, minimum inhibitory concentration, synergy, potentiate, wildtype, E. coli, 384, common, inhibitor, absorbance, assay provider, Scripps, Scripps Florida, The Scripps Research Institute Molecular Screening Center, SRIMSC, Molecular Libraries Probe Production Center Network, MLPCN.
Protocol
Assay Overview:
The purpose of this assay is to determine the intrinsic antibacterial activity in wild-type E. coli (nonresistant) of powder samples of test compounds identified as possible VIM-2/IMP-1 common inhibitor probe candidates. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were conducted using two-fold serial broth dilution method as recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). All testing was performed in 384 well plates in 0.06 mL final volume. Imipenem or test compound was titrated in Cation Adjusted Mueller-Hinton Broth (CAMHB) immediately prior to testing. E. coli previously grown in CAMHB to log phase OD600 of 0.5 - 0.7 was used to inoculate each well with 0.03 mL of bacterial inoculums of 1 x 106 CFU/mL. The plates were incubated for at least 18 hours at 37 C under aerobic conditions. MIC was determined as per CLSI. Compounds and Imipenem were tested in triplicate using 10-point two-fold serial dilutions starting at a nominal test concentration of 50 uM.
Protocol Summary:
Prior to the start of the assay, compounds or controls were titrated in 30 uL of CAMHB in a 384 well microtiter plate. Next, 30 uL of CAMHB inoculated with BL21 wild type E.coli 1 x 106 CFU/mL was added to wells.
Next, the plates were centrifuged briefly and were incubated for 18 hours at 37 C in a humidified environment. Absorbance (OD590) was read on a Tecan Spectraflour Plus plate reader (Tecan U.S., Inc.) using 4 reads per well.
The percent inhibition for each compound was calculated as follows:
100 * ( ( Test_Compound - Median_Low_Control ) / ( Median_High_Control - Median_Low_Control ) )
Where:
High_Control is defined as wells containing BL21 E.coli.
Low_Control is defined as wells containing Imipenem (50 uM).
Test_Compound is defined as wells containing BL21 E.coli in the presence of test compound.
A mathematical algorithm was used to determine the MIC of compounds. Two values were calculated: (1) the average percent inhibition of all low control wells, and (2) three times their standard deviation. The sum of these two values was used as a cutoff parameter. The reported MIC values were generated by identifying the lowest concentration of inhibitor that yields a value that is less than the cutoff value. In cases where the highest concentration tested (i.e. 50 uM) did not result in a value that was less than the cutoff, the MIC was determined manually as greater than 50 uM.
PubChem Activity Score and Outcome:
The average percent inhibition of each compound tested was calculated. Any compound that exhibited a percent inhibition less than the hit cutoff calculated was declared active.
All compounds where a MIC was determined were assigned a PubChem Activity Score greater than zero. The active score was then normalized across the range of MIC concentrations.
The PubChem Activity Score range for active compounds is 100-1. There are no inactive compounds.
List of Reagents:
384 well plates (Corning, part 3701)
Imipenem antibiotic (USP, Rockville MD, part 1337809)
Competent non-transformed E. coli (DE3) (BL21, Novagen, Gibbstown, NJ)
Mueller Hinton II Broth Cation-Adjusted (CAMHB; Becton Dickinson, part 297963).
Comment
This assay may have been run as two or more separate campaigns, each campaign testing a unique set of compounds. In this case the results of each separate campaign were assigned "Active/Inactive" status based upon that campaign's specific compound activity cutoff value. All data reported were normalized on a per-plate basis. Possible artifacts of this assay can include, but are not limited to: dust or lint located in or on wells of the microtiter plate, or compounds that modulate well fluorescence. All test compound concentrations reported above and below are nominal; the specific test concentration(s) for a particular compound may vary based upon the actual sample provided.
Result Definitions
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TIDNameDescriptionHistogramTypeUnit
OutcomeThe BioAssay activity outcomeOutcome
ScoreThe BioAssay activity ranking scoreInteger
1QualifierActivity Qualifier identifies if the resultant data MIC came from a fitted curve or was determined manually to be less than or greater than its listed MIC concentration.String
2MICThe concentration at which the activity in the inhibitor assay produces no observable growth; (MIC) shown in micromolar.FloatμM
3LogMICLog10 of the qualified MIC from the inhibitor assay in M concentrationFloat
4Number of DataPointsOverall number of data points of normalized percent inhibition that was used for calculations (includes all concentration points); in some cases a data point can be excluded as outlier.Float
5Inhibition at 0.098 uM [1] (0.098μM**)Value of % inhibition at 0.098 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate one.Float%
6Inhibition at 0.098 uM [2] (0.098μM**)Value of % inhibition at 0.098 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate two.Float%
7Inhibition at 0.098 uM [3] (0.098μM**)Value of % inhibition at 0.098 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate three.Float%
8Inhibition at 0.195 uM [1] (0.195μM**)Value of % inhibition at 0.195 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate one.Float%
9Inhibition at 0.195 uM [2] (0.195μM**)Value of % inhibition at 0.195 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate two.Float%
10Inhibition at 0.195 uM [3] (0.195μM**)Value of % inhibition at 0.195 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate three.Float%
11Inhibition at 0.391 uM [1] (0.391μM**)Value of % inhibition at 0.391 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate one.Float%
12Inhibition at 0.391 uM [2] (0.391μM**)Value of % inhibition at 0.391 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate two.Float%
13Inhibition at 0.391 uM [3] (0.391μM**)Value of % inhibition at 0.391 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate three.Float%
14Inhibition at 0.781 uM [1] (0.781μM**)Value of % inhibition at 0.781 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate one.Float%
15Inhibition at 0.781 uM [2] (0.781μM**)Value of % inhibition at 0.781 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate two.Float%
16Inhibition at 0.781 uM [3] (0.781μM**)Value of % inhibition at 0.781 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate three.Float%
17Inhibition at 1.56 uM [1] (1.56μM**)Value of % inhibition at 1.56 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate one.Float%
18Inhibition at 1.56 uM [2] (1.56μM**)Value of % inhibition at 1.56 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate two.Float%
19Inhibition at 1.56 uM [3] (1.56μM**)Value of % inhibition at 1.56 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate three.Float%
20Inhibition at 3.125 uM [1] (3.125μM**)Value of % inhibition at 3.125 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate one.Float%
21Inhibition at 3.125 uM [2] (3.125μM**)Value of % inhibition at 3.125 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate two.Float%
22Inhibition at 3.125 uM [3] (3.125μM**)Value of % inhibition at 3.125 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate three.Float%
23Inhibition at 6.25 uM [1] (6.25μM**)Value of % inhibition at 6.25 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate one.Float%
24Inhibition at 6.25 uM [2] (6.25μM**)Value of % inhibition at 6.25 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate two.Float%
25Inhibition at 6.25 uM [3] (6.25μM**)Value of % inhibition at 6.25 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate three.Float%
26Inhibition at 12.5 uM [1] (12.5μM**)Value of % inhibition at 12.5 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate one.Float%
27Inhibition at 12.5 uM [2] (12.5μM**)Value of % inhibition at 12.5 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate two.Float%
28Inhibition at 12.5 uM [3] (12.5μM**)Value of % inhibition at 12.5 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate three.Float%
29Inhibition at 25 uM [1] (25μM**)Value of % inhibition at 25 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate one.Float%
30Inhibition at 25 uM [2] (25μM**)Value of % inhibition at 25 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate two.Float%
31Inhibition at 25 uM [3] (25μM**)Value of % inhibition at 25 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate three.Float%
32Inhibition at 50 uM [1] (50μM**)Value of % inhibition at 50 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate one.Float%
33Inhibition at 50 uM [2] (50μM**)Value of % inhibition at 50 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate two.Float%
34Inhibition at 50 uM [3] (50μM**)Value of % inhibition at 50 micromolar inhibitor concentration; replicate three.Float%

** Test Concentration.
Additional Information
Grant Number: 1 R21 NS059451-01

Data Table (Concise)
Data Table ( Complete ):     View Active Data    View All Data
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