Lipophilicity, log P of the compound
Carboxylesterases are enzymes that hydrolyze a broad suite of endogenous and exogenous ester-containing compounds to the corresponding alcohol and carboxylic acid. These enzymes metabolize a number of therapeutics including the anti-tumor agent CPT-11, the anti-viral drug oseltamivir, and the anti-thrombogenic agent clopidogrel as well as many agrochemicals. In addition, carboxylesterases are more ..
Title: Comparison of benzil and trifluoromethyl ketone (TFK)-mediated carboxylesterase inhibition using classical and 3D-quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis.
Abstract: Carboxylesterases are enzymes that hydrolyze a broad suite of endogenous and exogenous ester-containing compounds to the corresponding alcohol and carboxylic acid. These enzymes metabolize a number of therapeutics including the anti-tumor agent CPT-11, the anti-viral drug oseltamivir, and the anti-thrombogenic agent clopidogrel as well as many agrochemicals. In addition, carboxylesterases are involved in lipid homeostasis, including cholesterol metabolism and transport with a proposed role in the development of atherosclerosis. Several different scaffolds capable of inhibiting carboxylesterases have been reported, including organophosphates, carbamates, trifluoromethyl ketone-containing structures (TFKs), and aromatic ethane-1,2-diones. Of these varied groups, only the 1,2-diones evidence carboxylesterase isoform-selectivity, which is an important characteristic for therapeutic application and probing biological mechanisms. This study constructed a series of classical and 3D-QSAR models to examine the physiochemical parameters involved in the observed selectivity of three mammalian carboxylesterases: human intestinal carboxylesterase (hiCE), human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1), and rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE). CoMFA-based models for the benzil-analogs described 88%, 95% and 76% of observed activity for hiCE, hCE1 and rCE, respectively. For TFK-containing compounds, two distinct models were constructed using either the ketone or gem-diol form of the inhibitor. For all three enzymes, the CoMFA ketone models comprised more biological activity than the corresponding gem-diol models; however the differences were small with described activity for all models ranging from 85-98%. A comprehensive model incorporating both benzil and TFK structures described 92%, 85% and 87% of observed activity for hiCE, hCE1 and rCE, respectively. Both classical and 3D-QSAR analysis showed that the observed isoform-selectivity with the benzil-analogs could be described by the volume parameter. This finding was successfully applied to examine substrate selectivity, demonstrating that the relative volumes of the alcohol and acid moieties of ester-containing substrates were predictive for whether hydrolysis was preferred by hiCE or hCE1. Based upon the integrated benzil and TFK model, the next generation inhibitors should combine the A-ring and the 1,2-dione of the benzil inhibitor with the long alkyl chain of the TFK-inhibitor in order to optimize selectivity and potency. These new inhibitors could be useful for elucidating the role of carboxylesterase activity in fatty acid homeostasis and the development of atherosclerosis as well as effecting the controlled activation of carboxylesterase-based prodrugs in situ.
ChEMBL Target ID: 22229
Target Type: NO TARGET
Pref Name: No relevant target
Confidence: Default value - Target unknown or has yet to be assigned
Relationship Type: Default value - Target has yet to be curated
Categorized Comment - additional comments and annotations
Assay Type: Physicochemical
Assay Data Source: Scientific Literature
BAO: Assay Format: small-molecule physicochemical format
Data Table (Concise)