Luminescence-based cell-based assay to identify inhibitors of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1)
Host defense mechanisms are diverse and include receptor-initiated signaling pathways, antibody and cytokine production, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radical and hypochlorus acid to kill microorganisms (1). In activated phagocytic cells, the membrane integrated protein gp91phox serves as the catalytic cytochrome b subunit of the respiratory burst oxidase more ..
BioActive Compounds: 68
Depositor Specified Assays
Data Source (MLPCN Center Name): The Scripps Research Institute Molecular Screening Center (SRIMSC)
Center Affiliation: The Scripps Research Institute, TSRI
Assay Provider: Gary Bokoch, TSRI
Network: Molecular Libraries Probe Production Center Network (MLPCN)
Grant Proposal Number: 1 R03 MH083264-01A1
Grant Proposal PI: Gary Bokoch, TSRI
External Assay ID: NOX1_INH_LUMI_384_3X%INH
Name: Luminescence-based cell-based assay to identify inhibitors of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1).
Host defense mechanisms are diverse and include receptor-initiated signaling pathways, antibody and cytokine production, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radical and hypochlorus acid to kill microorganisms (1). In activated phagocytic cells, the membrane integrated protein gp91phox serves as the catalytic cytochrome b subunit of the respiratory burst oxidase used to generate superoxide in an NADPH-dependent manner for host defense (2). Generation of ROS has also been identified in non-phagocytic cells (3). One important enzyme involved in ROS production in non-leukocyte tissues is NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), a homolog of gp91phox. NOX1 is highly expressed in colon epithelial cells where it can generate ROS to interact with normal and pathogenic bacteria (3-5). However, excess ROS production is associated with damage to the intestinal mucosa, particularly in mucosal lesions of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (4). Studies showing that NOX1 levels are increased in human prostate cancer (6) and that cells overexpressing NOX1 have a transformed appearance, exhibit anchorage-independent growth, and induce vascularized tumor formation in athymic mice (3, 7), suggest that NOX1 may also play a role in angiogenesis, cell growth, and tumor pathogenesis (8, 9). The identification of inhibitors of NOX1 may lead to potential candidates for excess cell proliferation, cancer, and IBD.
1. Takeya, R. and Sumimoto, H., Molecular mechanism for activation of superoxide-producing NADPH oxidases. Mol Cells, 2003. 16(3): p. 271-7.
2. Cheng, G., Cao, Z., Xu, X., van Meir, E.G., and Lambeth, J.D., Homologs of gp91phox: cloning and tissue expression of Nox3, Nox4, and Nox5. Gene, 2001. 269(1-2): p. 131-40.
3. Suh, Y.A., Arnold, R.S., Lassegue, B., Shi, J., Xu, X., Sorescu, D., Chung, A.B., Griendling, K.K., and Lambeth, J.D., Cell transformation by the superoxide-generating oxidase Mox1. Nature, 1999. 401(6748): p. 79-82.
4. Szanto, I., Rubbia-Brandt, L., Kiss, P., Steger, K., Banfi, B., Kovari, E., Herrmann, F., Hadengue, A., and Krause, K.H., Expression of NOX1, a superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase, in colon cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. J Pathol, 2005. 207(2): p. 164-76.
5. Rokutan, K., Kawahara, T., Kuwano, Y., Tominaga, K., Nishida, K., and Teshima-Kondo, S., Nox enzymes and oxidative stress in the immunopathology of the gastrointestinal tract. Semin Immunopathol, 2008. 30(3): p. 315-27.
6. Lim, S.D., Sun, C., Lambeth, J.D., Marshall, F., Amin, M., Chung, L., Petros, J.A., and Arnold, R.S., Increased Nox1 and hydrogen peroxide in prostate cancer. Prostate, 2005. 62(2): p. 200-7.
7. Arnold, R.S., Shi, J., Murad, E., Whalen, A.M., Sun, C.Q., Polavarapu, R., Parthasarathy, S., Petros, J.A., and Lambeth, J.D., Hydrogen peroxide mediates the cell growth and transformation caused by the mitogenic oxidase Nox1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2001. 98(10): p. 5550-5.
8. Ushio-Fukai, M. and Nakamura, Y., Reactive oxygen species and angiogenesis: NADPH oxidase as target for cancer therapy. Cancer Lett, 2008. 266(1): p. 37-52.
9. Kobayashi, S., Nojima, Y., Shibuya, M., and Maru, Y., Nox1 regulates apoptosis and potentially stimulates branching morphogenesis in sinusoidal endothelial cells. Exp Cell Res, 2004. 300(2): p. 455-62.
NOX1, NADPH oxidase 1, cancer, inflammation, 384, inhibitor, inhibition, late stage, HT29, luminol, ROS, chemiluminescence, Scripps, The Scripps Research Institute Molecular Screening Center, SRIMSC, Molecular Libraries Probe Production Center Network, MLPCN.
The purpose of this cell-based assay is to confirm activity of compounds of interest identified as active in the primary assay. This chemiluminescence assay employs a luminol probe to monitor intracellular ROS in the HT29 transformed colonic epithelial cell line. HT29 cells express high endogenous levels of known NOX1 components and no other Nox family members.
In this assay, the cells are incubated with test compounds for one hour, and then cell permeable luminol and horseradish peroxidase are added. The interaction of luminol with NOX1-generated ROS/superoxide inside cells yields an unstable endoperoxide that generates light, leading to increased well luminescence. As designed, compounds that inhibit cellular NOX1 activity will reduce intracellular ROS and endoperoxide levels, leading to reduced luminol-ROS interactions, reduced endoperoxide production, reduced light emission, and reduced well luminescence. Test compounds were assayed in triplicate at a final nominal concentration of 3.3 micromolar.
PubChem Activity Outcome and Score:
Compounds with ≥50% inhibitory activity were scored as "Active", and compounds with < 50% inhibitory activity were scored as "Inactive". The reported PubChem Activity Score has been normalized to 100% observed primary inhibition. Negative % inhibition values are reported as activity score zero.
The PubChem Activity Score range for active compounds is 100-47, for inactive 44-0.
List of Reagents:
HT29 cells (provided by Assay Provider)
DMEM medium (GIBCO, part 25200)
Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (Invitrogen, part 14025-092)
100X Penicillin-Streptomycin mix (Invitrogen, part 15140)
Trypsin-EDTA solution (Invitrogen, part 25200-056)
Fetal Bovine Serum (Invitrogen, part 16140-071)
Luminol (Sigma, 09253-5g)
Horseradish peroxidase (EMD Bioscience, part 516531-5KU)
DPI (Sigma, D2926)
150 mm tissue culture dishes (Corning, part 430599)
384-well plates (Corning, 3704)
Possible artifacts of this assay can include, but are not limited to: dust or lint located in or on wells of the microtiter plate, compounds that non-specifically modulate luciferase activity, and compounds that quench or emit luminescence within the well. All test compound concentrations reported are nominal; the specific concentration for a particular test compound may vary based upon the actual sample provided by the MLSMR.
** Test Concentration.
Data Table (Concise)