SAR analysis of NF-kB dependent luciferase using Doxorucibin as an inducer
The modulation of immune response activity is one of the major goals in the development of novel therapeutics for auto-immune and inflammatory diseases. The innate system resides at the intersection of the pathways of microbial recognition, inflammation, and cell death, thereby offering various therapeutic targets. In this context, NOD1 and NOD2 are of particular interest, since they recognize distinct structures derived from bacterial peptidoglycans and directly activate NF-kB, a central regulator of immune response, inflammation, and apoptosis. ..more
Data Source: Sanford-Burnham Center for Chemical Genomics (SBCCG)
Source Affiliation: Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (SBMRI, San Diego, CA)
Network: NIH Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN)
Grant Number: 1 R03 MH084844-01
Assay Provider: Dr. John C. Reed, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, San Diego CA
The modulation of immune response activity is one of the major goals in the development of novel therapeutics for auto-immune and inflammatory diseases. The innate system resides at the intersection of the pathways of microbial recognition, inflammation, and cell death, thereby offering various therapeutic targets. In this context, NOD1 and NOD2 are of particular interest, since they recognize distinct structures derived from bacterial peptidoglycans and directly activate NF-kB, a central regulator of immune response, inflammation, and apoptosis.
Mutations in the NOD1 and NOD2 genes are associated with a number of human inflammatory disorders, including Crohn's disease (CD), Blau syndrome, early-onset sarcoidosis, and atopic diseases, which characteristically cause constitutive NF-kB activation. Chemical inhibitors of NOD1 and NOD2 would provide powerful research tools for elucidating the roles of these proteins in primary cultured cells from humans and in animal models.
The assay described below is a cell-based counter screen assay that utilizes NF-kB-mediated luciferase reporter gene activity as a measure of NF-kB activation by DNA damage agents, using doxorubicin as a prototypical inducer. The assay uses a luminescent readout.
This dose response assay is developed and performed to confirm hits originally identified in "uHTS luminescence assay for the identification of compounds that inhibit NOD1" (AID 1578) and to study the structure-activity relationship on analogs of the confirmed hits. Compounds are either acquired from commercial sources or synthesized internally.
1) Strober W, Murray PJ, Kitani A, Watanabe T. Nat Rev Immunol. 2006 Jan;6(1):9-20. Review. Signalling pathways and molecular interactions of NOD1 and NOD2.
2. da Silva Correia J, Miranda Y, Austin-Brown N, Hsu J, Mathison J, Xiang R, Zhou H, Li Q, Han J, Ulevitch RJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 7;103(6):1840-5. Epub 2006 Jan 30. Nod1-dependent control of tumor growth
3. Joosten LA, Heinhuis B, Abdollahi-Roodsaz S, Ferwerda G, Lebourhis L, Philpott DJ, Nahori MA, Popa C, Morre SA, van der Meer JW, Girardin SE, Netea MG, van den Berg WB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 1;105(26):9017-22. Epub 2008 Jun 23. Differential function of the NACHT-LRR (NLR) members Nod1 and Nod2 in arthritis.
4. Shaw MH, Reimer T, Kim YG, Nunez G. Curr Opin Immunol. 2008 Aug;20(4):377-82. Epub 2008 Jul 2. Review. NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors.
5.Kim YG, Park JH, Shaw MH, Franchi L, Inohara N, Nunez G. Immunity. 2008 Feb;28(2):246-57. Epub 2008 Feb 7. The cytosolic sensors Nod1 and Nod2 are critical for bacterial recognition and host defense after exposure to Toll-like receptor ligands.
6. Rescigno M, Nieuwenhuis EE. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2007 Jan;23(1):21-6. Review. The role of altered microbial signaling via mutant NODs in intestinal inflammation.
7. Rosenstiel P, Hellmig S, Hampe J, Ott S, Till A, Fischbach W, Sahly H, Lucius R, Folsch UR, Philpott D, Schreiber S. Cell Microbiol. 2006 Jul;8(7):1188-98. Influence of polymorphisms in the NOD1/CARD4 and NOD2/CARD15 genes on the clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection.
8. McGovern DP, Hysi P, Ahmad T, van Heel DA, Moffatt MF, Carey A, Cookson WO, Jewell DP. Hum Mol Genet. 2005 May 15;14(10):1245-50. Epub 2005 Mar 24. Association between a complex insertion/deletion polymorphism in NOD1 (CARD4) and susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease.
9. Opitz B, Puschel A, Schmeck B, Hocke AC, Rosseau S, Hammerschmidt S, Schumann RR, Suttorp N, Hippenstiel S. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 27;279(35):36426-32. Epub 2004 Jun 23. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins are innate immune receptors for internalized Streptococcus pneumoniae.
10. Le Bourhis L, Benko S, Girardin SE. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Dec;35(Pt 6):1479-84. Review. Nod1 and Nod2 in innate immunity and human inflammatory disorders.
11. Maeda S, Hsu LC, Liu H, Bankston LA, Iimura M, Kagnoff MF, Eckmann L, Karin M. Science. 2005 Feb 4;307(5710):734-8. Erratum in: Science. 2005 Apr 29;308(5722):633. Nod2 mutation in Crohn's disease potentiates NF-kappaB activity and IL-1beta processing
12. Li J, Moran T, Swanson E, Julian C, Harris J, Bonen DK, Hedl M, Nicolae DL, Abraham C, Cho JH. Regulation of IL-8 and IL-1beta expression in Crohn's disease associated NOD2/CARD15 mutations.
13. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Aug 15;13(16):1715-25. Epub 2004 Jun 15. Brideau C, Gunter B, Pikounis B, Liaw A. J Biomol Screen. 2003 Dec;8(6):634-47 Improved statistical methods for hit selection in high-throughput screening.
1) HEK-293-T NFKB-Luc cell line obtained from the assay provider's laboratory.
2) Doxorubicin hydrochloride (Sigma).
3) SteadyGlo (Promega)
1. Compounds were diluted in DMEM 10% FBS plus Pen/Strep (culture medium), and 10 uL were added into respective wells (96-well culture plate) to reach desired final concentrations.
2. Doxorubicin was added, in a final concentration of 445 ng/ml, to a culture medium suspension of HEK-293-T NFKB-Luc cells (1,1x10+6 cells per mililiter).
3. Pre-induced HEK-293-T NFKB-Luc cells were added into the respective wells (90 ul per well) and kept at 37oC (10% CO2 incubator) for 18 hours.
4. After incubation, plated cells were equilibrated to room temperature for 15 minutes.
5.Luciferase assay was then performed by adding 40 microliters per well of the Steady-GloTM reagent. After a ten minute incubation at room temperature, light emission was measured with the AnalystTM Microplate reader (LJL Biosystems).
Compounds are considered active if IC50 < 25 uM.
To simplify the distinction between the inactives of the primary screen and of the confirmatory screening stage, the Tiered Activity Scoring System was developed and implemented. Its utilization for the assay is described below.
Activity scoring rules were devised to take into consideration compound efficacy, its potential interference with the assay and the screening stage that the data was obtained. Details of the Scoring System will be published elsewhere. Briefly, the outline of the scoring system utilized for the assay is as follows:
1) First tier (0-40 range) is reserved for primary screening data and is not applicable to this assay
2) 2) Second tier (41-80 range) is reserved for dose-response confirmation data and is not applicable to this assay
3) Third tier (81-100 range) is reserved for resynthesized true positives and their analogues
a. Inactive compounds of the confirmatory stage are assigned a score value equal 81.
b. The score is linearly correlated with a compound's inhibitory potency and, in addition, provides a measure of the likelihood that the compound is not an artifact based on the available information.
c. Summary equation that takes into account the items discussed above is
Score = 82 + 3*(pIC50 - 3),
where pIC50 is a negative log(10) of the IC50 value expressed in mole/L concentration units. This equation results in the Score values above 85 for compounds that demonstrate high potency and predictable behavior. Compounds that are inactive in the assay or whose concentration-dependent behavior are likely to be an artifact of that assay will generally have lower Score values.
Categorized Comment - additional comments and annotations
* Activity Concentration.
Data Table (Concise)