Epi-absorbance-based counterscreen assay for selective VIM-2 inhibitors: biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of TEM-1 serine-beta-lactamase.
Name: Epi-absorbance-based counterscreen assay for selective VIM-2 inhibitors: biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of TEM-1 serine-beta-lactamase. ..more
BioActive Compounds: 38
Source (MLPCN Center Name): The Scripps Research Institute Molecular Screening Center (SRIMSC)
Center Affiliation: The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI)
Assay Provider: Peter Hodder, TSRI
Network: Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN)
Grant Proposal Number: 1 R21 NS059451-01 Fast Track
Grant Proposal PI: Peter Hodder, TSRI
External Assay ID: TEM-1NITRO_INH_EPIABS_1536_3X%INH
Name: Epi-absorbance-based counterscreen assay for selective VIM-2 inhibitors: biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of TEM-1 serine-beta-lactamase.
The emergence of gram-negative bacteria that exhibit multi-drug resistance, combined with the paucity of new antibiotics, poses a public health challenge (1). The production of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes, in particular, is a common mechanism of drug resistance (2-4). The beta-lactamases evolved from bacteria with resistance to naturally-occurring beta-lactams or penams (5), agents which inhibit the transpeptidase involved in cell wall biosynthesis (6). Human medicine adapted these agents into synthetic antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams that contain a 2-azetidone ring (5, 7). The metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL) are zinc-dependent class B beta-lactamases that hydrolyze the beta-lactam ring, rendering the antibiotic ineffective (6, 8). Increasingly, nosocomial beta-lactam antibiotic resistance arises in P. aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and other pathogenic bacteria via gene transfer of B1 MBLs (4, 9), including IMP (active on IMiPenem) (10) and VIM (Verona IMipenemase) (11, 12). For two of these enzymes, VIM-2 and IMP-1, no inhibitors exist for clinical use (6, 9). Thus, the identification of MBL inhibitors would provide useful tools for reducing nosocomial infections and elucidating their mechanism of action (13-14).
1. Siegel, R.E., Emerging gram-negative antibiotic resistance: daunting challenges, declining sensitivities, and dire consequences. Respir Care, 2008. 53(4): p. 471-9.
2. Gupta, V., An update on newer beta-lactamases. Indian J Med Res, 2007. 126(5): p. 417-27.
3. Bradford, P.A., Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in the 21st century: characterization, epidemiology, and detection of this important resistance threat. Clin Microbiol Rev, 2001. 14(4): p. 933-51, table of contents.
4. Sacha, P., Wieczorek, P., Hauschild, T., Zorawski, M., Olszanska, D., and Tryniszewska, E., Metallo-beta-lactamases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa--a novel mechanism resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Folia Histochem Cytobiol, 2008. 46(2): p. 137-42.
5. Koch, A.L., Bacterial wall as target for attack: past, present, and future research. Clin Microbiol Rev, 2003. 16(4): p. 673-87.
6. Jin, W., Arakawa, Y., Yasuzawa, H., Taki, T., Hashiguchi, R., Mitsutani, K., Shoga, A., Yamaguchi, Y., Kurosaki, H., Shibata, N., Ohta, M., and Goto, M., Comparative study of the inhibition of metallo-beta-lactamases (IMP-1 and VIM-2) by thiol compounds that contain a hydrophobic group. Biol Pharm Bull, 2004. 27(6): p. 851-6.
7. Abeylath, S.C. and Turos, E., Drug delivery approaches to overcome bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2008. 5(9): p. 931-49.
8. Wang, Z., Fast, W., Valentine, A.M., and Benkovic, S.J., Metallo-beta-lactamase: structure and mechanism. Curr Opin Chem Biol, 1999. 3(5): p. 614-22.
9. Walsh, T.R., Toleman, M.A., Poirel, L., and Nordmann, P., Metallo-beta-lactamases: the quiet before the storm? Clin Microbiol Rev, 2005. 18(2): p. 306-25.
10. Hirakata, Y., Izumikawa, K., Yamaguchi, T., Takemura, H., Tanaka, H., Yoshida, R., Matsuda, J., Nakano, M., Tomono, K., Maesaki, S., Kaku, M., Yamada, Y., Kamihira, S., and Kohno, S., Rapid detection and evaluation of clinical characteristics of emerging multiple-drug-resistant gram-negative rods carrying the metallo-beta-lactamase gene blaIMP. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 1998. 42(8): p. 2006-11.
11. Lauretti, L., Riccio, M.L., Mazzariol, A., Cornaglia, G., Amicosante, G., Fontana, R., and Rossolini, G.M., Cloning and characterization of blaVIM, a new integron-borne metallo-beta-lactamase gene from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 1999. 43(7): p. 1584-90.
12. Wang, C.X. and Mi, Z.H., Imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing IMP-1 metallo-beta-lactamases and lacking the outer-membrane protein OprD. J Med Microbiol, 2006. 55(Pt 3): p. 353-4.
13. Zuck P, O'Donnell GT, Cassaday J, Chase P, Hodder P, Strulovici B, Ferrer M. Miniaturization of absorbance assays using the fluorescent properties of white microplates. Anal Biochem. 2005 Jul 15;342 (2):254-9.
14. Paterson DL, Bonomo RA. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: a clinical update. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005 Oct;18(4):657-86.
VIM-2, beta-lactamase, antibiotic resistance, bacteria, counterscreen, TEM-1, serine beta-lactamase, HTS, high throughput screen, 1536, selective, inhibitor, epi-absorbance, fluorescence, Scripps, Scripps Florida, The Scripps Research Institute Molecular Screening Center, SRIMSC, Molecular Libraries Probe Production Center Network, MLPCN.
The purpose of this assay is to determine whether compounds identified as active in a previous set of experiments entitled, "Primary biochemical high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase" (AID 1527), were nonselective or assay artifact due to inhibition of TEM-1, a serine beta-lactamase that hydrolyzes ampicillin, has negligible activity against extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and is inhibited by clavulanic acid (14). This biochemical epi-absorbance-format assay employs the cephalosporin nitrocefin as the TEM-1 substrate, and takes advantage of the fluorescent properties of white microtiter plates (13). Nitrocefin is a yellow chromogenic substrate (Imax = 395 nm) that is hydrolyzed by beta-lactamases to yield a red product with increased absorbance properties (Imax = 495 nm) that quenches plate fluorescence by absorbing the plate's emission light (13). In this assay, test compounds are incubated with purified TEM-1 enzyme and nitrocefin in detergent-containing buffer at room temperature. The reaction is stopped by the addition of potassium clavulanate, followed by measurement of well fluorescence. As designed, compounds that inhibit TEM-1 will inhibit nitrocefin hydrolysis, inhibit generation of red product, and inhibit quenching of plate fluorescence, resulting in an increase in well fluorescence. Compounds were tested in triplicate at a final nominal concentration of 5.6 uM.
Prior to the start of the assay, 2.5 microliters of Assay Buffer (PBS, 0.05% Brij 35, pH 7.4) containing 0.2 nM TEM-1 protein were dispensed into a 1536 microtiter plate. Next, 30 nL of test compound in DMSO, DMSO alone (0.45% final concentration), or potassium clavulanate (100 micromolar final concentration) were added to the appropriate wells. The plates were then incubated for 15 minutes at 25 degrees Celsius.
The assay was started by dispensing 2.5 microliters of 200 micromolar nitrocefin solution in Assay Buffer into all wells. After 25 minutes of incubation at 25 degrees Celsius, 5.0 microliters of 20 micromolar potassium clavulanate were added to each well to stop the reaction. Next, the plates were centrifuged briefly and well fluorescence was read on a Viewlux microplate reader (PerkinElmer, Turku, Finland) (excitation = 480nm, emission = 530nm).
The Optical density (OD) for each well was calculated according to the following equation:
OD = -log(RFU_SampleWell / RFU_BlankWell)
RFU_SampleWell is defined as the raw fluorescence value obtained from test compound wells , RFU_BlankWell is defined as the raw fluorescence value obtained from wells containing Assay Buffer.
The percent inhibition for each compound was calculated as follows:
Percent inhibition = 100 * (1 - (Test_Compound - Median_Positive_Control) / (Median_Negative_Control - Median_ Positive _Control))
Test_Compound is defined as wells containing TEM-1 in the presence of test compound,
Negative_Control is defined as wells containing TEM-1 in the presence of DMSO,
Positive_Control is defined as wells containing TEM-1 in the presence of potassium clavulanate.
A mathematical algorithm was used to determine nominally inhibiting compounds in the counterscreen. Two values were calculated: (1) the average percent inhibition of all compounds tested, and (2) three times their standard deviation. The sum of these two values was used as a cutoff parameter, i.e. any compound that exhibited greater % inhibition than the cutoff parameter was declared active.
The reported PubChem activity score has been normalized to 100% of the highest observed inhibition value. Negative % inhibition values are reported as activity score zero.
The inactive compounds of this assay have an activity score range of 0 to 0 and the active compounds range of activity score is 0 to 100.
List of Reagents:
Recombinant TEM-1 (Invitrogen, part PV3575)
Nitrocefin (BD Diagnostic Systems, part 296289)
1536-well plates (Greiner, part 789173)
Phosphate Buffered Saline (Invitrogen, part 10010072)
Brij 35 (Sigma-Aldrich, part B4184)
Due to the increasing size of the MLPCN compound library, this assay may have been run as two or more separate campaigns, each campaign testing a unique set of compounds. In this case the results of each separate campaign were assigned "Active/Inactive" status based upon that campaign's specific compound activity cutoff value. All data reported were normalized on a per-plate basis. Possible artifacts of this assay can include, but are not limited to: dust or lint located in or on wells of the microtiter plate, compounds that modulate well fluorescence. All test compound concentrations reported above and below are nominal; the specific test concentration(s) for a particular compound may vary based upon the actual sample provided by the MLSMR. The MLSMR was not able to provide all compounds selected for testing in this AID.
Categorized Comment - additional comments and annotations
** Test Concentration.
Data Table (Concise)