Summary of probe development efforts to identify inhibitors of Retinoblastoma binding protein 9 (RBBP9).
Name: Summary of probe development efforts to identify inhibitors of Retinoblastoma binding protein 9 (RBBP9). ..more
Depositor Specified Assays
Source (MLPCN Center Name): The Scripps Research Institute Molecular Screening Center (SRIMSC)
Center Affiliation: The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI)
Assay Provider: Benjamin Cravatt, TSRI
Network: Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN)
Grant Proposal Number: 1 R01 CA087660-05 Fast Track
Grant Proposal PI: Benjamin Cravatt, TSRI
External Assay ID: RBBP9_INH_PROBES_SUMMARY
Name: Summary of probe development efforts to identify inhibitors of Retinoblastoma binding protein 9 (RBBP9).
The retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor protein controls cell cycle progression by regulating the activity of the transcription factor E2F (1), which activates genes essential for DNA replication. Hypophosphorylated RB inhibits cell cycle progression by sequestering E2F, thus preventing the activation of genes required for S phase transition. Due to the critical role of RB in regulating the cell cycle, factors that bind and regulate RB activity are considered valuable targets for preventing tumorigenesis. One such protein, RB binding protein 9 (RBBP9), is widely expressed in different tissues and upregulated in certain tumors (2, 3). The RBBP9 protein contains an alpha/beta hydrolase fold which belongs to the DUF1234 domain superfamily of unknown function. Although an enzymatic activity of RBBP9 has not been reported, this protein does react with activity-based probes that target serine hydrolases, suggesting that it is a functional enzyme. Also consistent with this premise, the crystal structure of RBBP9 was recently solved and revealed a well-structured active site with a properly arranged catalytic triad (4).
A role for RBBP9 in cellular transformation came from studies showing that RBBP9 mRNA expression is increased in transformed rat liver cell lines and human liver tumor biopsies (3). RBBP9-overexpressing cells form tumors when implanted into immuno-deficient mice (3), and RBBP9 overexpression confers resistance to TGF-beta1-induced growth inhibition through its interaction with Rb and displacement of E2F (3, 5). RBBP9 is also suggested to play a role in gender-related differential responses to radiation-induced cell proliferation (6). As a result, the identification of compounds that selectively inhibit RBBP9 activity may provide valuable probes for the study of apoptosis, cell cycle, and tumorigenesis.
Summary of Probe Development Effort:
Following primary HTS in singlicate to identify RBBP9 inhibitors (AID 1515) and confirmation of hit activity in triplicate (AID 1537), compounds were identified as possible candidates for probe development. The top hits were selected for screening using gel-based ABPP profiling to determine potency, and selectivity in two complex proteomes.
After identification of emetine as an inhibitor of RBBP9, about 80 compounds similar in structure to emetine were purchased, including several other natural product ipecac alkaloids. Only two additional compounds, the natural products cephaeline and tubusoline, inhibited RBBP9, albeit with reduced potency relative to emetine. Notably, dehydroemetine, which only differs from emetine by the presence of one double bond, failed to inhibit RBBP9 at concentrations up to 200 muM. The tight structure-activity relationship of the emetine-RBBP9 interaction suggests that only minor modifications to the emetine structure will preserve/improve activity, and future studies will involve semi-synthetic addition of small moieties to the emetine and cephaeline scaffolds.
The above efforts resulted in the identification of novel, potent, and selective small molecule inhibitors of RBBP9. Two probe reports have been submitted describing compound screening and analog syntheses. The results of our probe development efforts can be found at http://mlpcn.florida.scripps.edu/index.php/probes/probe-reports.html#RBBP9. One paper has been published detailing these compounds (7). A probe report for SID 855836 can be found in the Molecular Libraries Bookshelf (PubMed Books) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books) under ML081. A probe report for SID 85098567 can be found in the Molecular Libraries Bookshelf (PubMed Books) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books) under ML114.
1. Nevins, J.R., E2F: a link between the Rb tumor suppressor protein and viral oncoproteins. Science, 1992. 258(5081): p. 424-9.
2. Chen, J.Z., Yang, Q.S., Wang, S., Meng, X.F., Ying, K., Xie, Y., and Ma, Y.M., Cloning and expression of a novel retinoblastoma binding protein cDNA, RBBP10. Biochem Genet, 2002. 40(7-8): p. 273-82.
3. Woitach, J.T., Zhang, M., Niu, C.H., and Thorgeirsson, S.S., A retinoblastoma-binding protein that affects cell-cycle control and confers transforming ability. Nat Genet, 1998. 19(4): p. 371-4.
4. Vorobiev, S.M., Su, M., Seetharaman, J., Huang, Y.J., Chen, C.X., Maglaqui, M., Janjua, H., Proudfoot, M., Yakunin, A., Xiao, R., Acton, T.B., Montelione, G.T., and Tong, L., Crystal structure of human retinoblastoma binding protein 9. Proteins, 2009. 74(2): p. 526-9.
5. Woitach, J.T., Hong, R., Keck, C.L., Zimonjic, D.B., Popescu, N.C., and Thorgeirsson, S.S., Assignment of the Bog gene (RBBP9) to syntenic regions of mouse chromosome 2G1-H1 and human chromosome 20p11.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet, 1999. 85(3-4): p. 252-3.
6. Cassie, S., Koturbash, I., Hudson, D., Baker, M., Ilnytskyy, Y., Rodriguez-Juarez, R., Weber, E., and Kovalchuk, O., Novel retinoblastoma binding protein RBBP9 modulates sex-specific radiation responses in vivo. Carcinogenesis, 2006. 27(3): p. 465-74.
7. Bachovchin, D.A., Brown, S.J., Rosen, H., and Cravatt, B.F., Identification of selective inhibitors of uncharacterized enzymes by high-throughput screening with fluorescent activity-based probes. Nat Biotechnol, 2003. 27(4): p. 387-94.
Summary, probes, RBBP9, retinoblastoma binding protein 9, BOG, cell cycle, cancer, fluorescence polarization, fluorophosphonate rhodamine, FP-Rh, antagonist, inhibitor, primary, confirmation, gel-based ABPP, HTS, 1536, Scripps, Scripps Florida, Scripps Research Institute Molecular Screening Center, SRIMSC, Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network, MLPCN.
Please see AIDs 1515, 1537, and below for all protocols performed in this probe development effort.
RBBP9 Inhibition Assays (Assays 1 and 2):
Identify compounds that act as inhibitors of RBBP9. In this assay, a fluorophosphonate-rhodamine (FP-Rh) probe which broadly targets enzymes from the serine hydrolase family is used to label RBBP9 in the presence of test compounds. The reaction is excited with linear polarized light and the intensity of the emitted light is measured as the polarization value (mP). As designed, test compounds that act as RBBP9 inhibitors will prevent RBBP9-probe interactions, thereby increasing the proportion of free (unbound) fluorescent probe in the well, leading to low fluorescence polarization in the well. Compounds were tested at a final nominal concentration of 7.94 micromolar in singlicate (AID 1515) and in triplicate (AID 1537).
Gel-based Activity-based Protein Profiling Assay (Assay 3):
This assay was performed in the laboratory of the Assay Provider. The purpose of this assay is to confirm activity of compounds identified as active in a previous set of experiments entitled, "Confirmation biochemical high throughput screening assay for inhibitors of Retinoblastoma binding protein 9 (RBBP9)," (PubChem AID 1537). In this assay, a fluorophosphonate-rhodamine (FP-Rh) probe which broadly targets enzymes from the serine hydrolase family is used to label RBBP9 in the presence of test compounds. The reaction products are separated by SDS-PAGE and visualized in-gel using a flatbed fluorescence scanner. The percentage activity remaining is determined by measuring the integrated optical density of the bands. As designed, test compounds that act as RBBP9 inhibitors will prevent RBBP9-probe interactions, thereby increasing the proportion of free (unbound) fluorescent probe, leading to low fluorescence polarization in the band in the gel. IC50 values are determined from dose-response curves from three trials at each inhibitor concentration (0.1-100 mM).
** Test Concentration.
Data Table (Concise)