Primary Cell-Based Assay to Identify Agonists of the Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 4 (S1P4)
Pandemic influenza represents a significant public health threat, due in part to immune cell-mediated lung tissue damage induced during viral infection. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive phospholipid released by activated blood platelets and serves to influence endothelial integrity, lung epithelial integrity (1), and lymphocyte recirculation (2-5) through five related high affinity more ..
BioActive Compounds: 771
Depositor Specified Assays
Source (MLSCN Center Name): The Scripps Research Institute Molecular Screening Center
Center Affiliation: The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI)
Assay Provider: Michael Oldstone, TSRI
Network: Molecular Library Screening Center Network (MLSCN)
Grant Proposal Number: U01 AI074564
Grant Proposal PI: Michael Oldstone, TSRI
External Assay ID: S1P4_AG_BLA_1536_%ACT
Name: Primary Cell-Based Assay to Identify Agonists of the Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 4 (S1P4)
Pandemic influenza represents a significant public health threat, due in part to immune cell-mediated lung tissue damage induced during viral infection. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive phospholipid released by activated blood platelets and serves to influence endothelial integrity, lung epithelial integrity (1), and lymphocyte recirculation (2-5) through five related high affinity G-protein coupled receptors. Recently, modulation of S1P receptors locally in the lungs was shown to alter dendritic cell activation and accumulation in the mediastinal lymph nodes, resulting in blunted T cell responses and control of immunopathological features of influenza virus infection (6). Reports showing that S1P5 expression is very low in dendritic cells but that S1P4 is highly expressed (7), suggest that chemical activation of the S1P4 receptor subtype in the airways could be efficient at controlling the immunopathological response to viral infection. S1P4 is coupled to Gαi and Gαo G-proteins and activates ERK MAPK and PLC downstream pathways (8). Thus, the identification of compounds that act as selective S1P4 agonists will provide insight into S1P4 biology and may serve as useful tools to limit lung tissue injury resulting from influenza infection.
1. Sanna, M.G., J. Liao, E. Jo, C. Alfonso, M.Y. Ahn, M.S. Peterson, B. Webb, S. Lefebvre, J. Chun, N. Gray, and H. Rosen, Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtypes S1P1 and S1P3, respectively, regulate lymphocyte recirculation and heart rate. J Biol Chem, 2004. 279(14): p. 13839-48.
2. Forrest, M., S.Y. Sun, R. Hajdu, J. Bergstrom, D. Card, G. Doherty, J. Hale, C. Keohane, C. Meyers, J. Milligan, S. Mills, N. Nomura, H. Rosen, M. Rosenbach, G.J. Shei, Singer, II, M. Tian, S. West, V. White, J. Xie, R.L. Proia, and S. Mandala, Immune cell regulation and cardiovascular effects of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor agonists in rodents are mediated via distinct receptor subtypes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 2004. 309(2): p. 758-68.
3. Gon, Y., M.R. Wood, W.B. Kiosses, E. Jo, M.G. Sanna, J. Chun, and H. Rosen, S1P3 receptor-induced reorganization of epithelial tight junctions compromises lung barrier integrity and is potentiated by TNF. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2005. 102(26): p. 9270-5.
4. Wei, S.H., H. Rosen, M.P. Matheu, M.G. Sanna, S.K. Wang, E. Jo, C.H. Wong, I. Parker, and M.D. Cahalan, Sphingosine 1-phosphate type 1 receptor agonism inhibits transendothelial migration of medullary T cells to lymphatic sinuses. Nat Immunol, 2005. 6(12): p. 1228-35.
5. Alfonso, C., M.G. McHeyzer-Williams, and H. Rosen, CD69 down-modulation and inhibition of thymic egress by short- and long-term selective chemical agonism of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors. Eur J Immunol, 2006. 36(1): p. 149-59.
6. Jo, E., M.G. Sanna, P.J. Gonzalez-Cabrera, S. Thangada, G. Tigyi, D.A. Osborne, T. Hla, A.L. Parrill, and H. Rosen, S1P1-selective in vivo-active agonists from high-throughput screening: off-the-shelf chemical probes of receptor interactions, signaling, and fate. Chem Biol, 2005. 12(6): p. 703-15.
7.Maeda, Y., Matsuyuki, H., Shimano, K., Kataoka, H., Sugahara, K., and Chiba, K., Migration of CD4 T cells and dendritic cells toward sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is mediated by different receptor subtypes: S1P regulates the functions of murine mature dendritic cells via S1P receptor type 3. J Immunol, 2007. 178(6): p. 3437-46.
8. Toman, R.E. and S. Spiegel, Lysophospholipid receptors in the nervous system. Neurochem Res, 2002. 27(7-8): p. 619-27.
Sphingosine Receptor, Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 4, S1P4, EDG6, LPC1, agonist, activator, HTS, GPCR, 1536, Tango, FRET, GAL4-VP16, beta-arrestin, beta-lactamase, BLA, reporter gene, fluorescence, primary, Scripps, Scripps Florida, Scripps Research Institute Molecular Screening Center, SRIMSC, Molecular Library Screening Center Network, MLSCN.
The purpose of this assay is to identify compounds that act as agonists of S1P4. This assay uses Tango S1P4-BLA U2OS cells which contain the human Endothelial Differentiation Gene 6 (EDG6; S1P4) linked to a GAL4-VP16 transcription factor via a TEV protease site. The cells also express a beta-arrestin/TEV protease fusion protein and a beta-lactamase (BLA) reporter gene under the control of a UAS response element. Stimulation of the S1P4 receptor by agonist causes migration of the fusion protein to the GPCR, and through proteolysis liberates GAL4-VP16 from the receptor. The liberated VP16-GAL4 migrates to the nucleus, where it induces transcription of the BLA gene. BLA expression is monitored by measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) of a cleavable, fluorogenic, cell-permeable BLA substrate. As designed, test compounds that act as S1P4 agonists will activate S1P4 and increase well FRET. Compounds were tested in singlicate at a final nominal concentration of 5 micromolar.
U2OS cells were cultured in T-175 sq cm flasks at 37 degrees C and 95% relative humidity (RH). The growth media consisted of McCoy's 5A Medium supplemented with 10% v/v dialyzed fetal bovine serum, 0.1 mM NEAA, 25 mM HEPES (pH 7.3), 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 100 U/mL penicillin-streptomycin-neomycin, 200 micrograms/mL Zeocin, 50 micrograms/mL Hygromycin, 100 micrograms/mL Geneticin.
Prior to the start of the assay, cells were suspended at a concentration of 250,000/mL in Assay Medium (Freestyle Expression Medium without supplements). The assay was started by dispensing 4 ul of cell suspension to each well, followed by overnight incubation at 37 degrees C in 5% CO2 and 95% RH. The next day, 25 nL of test compound (5 uM final nominal concentration) in DMSO was added to sample wells, and DMSO alone (0.5 % final concentration) was added to control wells. The S1P High Control prepared in 2% fatty-acid free BSA was also added to the appropriate control wells to a final concentration of 5 uM. Plates were then incubated at 37 degrees C in 5% CO2 for 4 hrs. After the incubation, 1 ul/well of the LiveBLAzer FRET substrate mixture, prepared according to the manufacturer's protocol and containing 10 mM Probenicid, was added to all wells. After 2 hours of incubation at room temperature in the dark, plates were read on the EnVision plate reader (PerkinElmer Lifesciences, Turku, Finland) at an excitation wavelength of 405 nm and emission wavelengths of 460 nm and 535 nm.
Prior to normalization, data were corrected by subtracting "background" for both emission channels (ie, fluorescence values from cell-free wells containing media and substrate only). To normalize assay data, these corrected values were used to calculate a ratio for each well, according to the following mathematical expression:
Ratio = I460 nm/ I535 nm
where I represents the measured fluorescence emission intensity at the enumerated wavelength.
The percent activation for each compound was calculated using well fluorescence as follows: % Activation =100* (1-((Test_Compound - Median_High_Control)/
(Median_Low_Control - Median_High_Control)))
Test_Compound is defined as wells containing test compound and S1P
Low_Control is defined as wells containing DMSO
High_Control is defined as wells containing 5μM S1P
A mathematical algorithm was used to determine nominally activating compounds in the primary screen. Two values were calculated for each assay plate: (1) the average percent activation of test compound wells and (2) three times their standard deviation. The sum of these two values was used as a cutoff parameter for each plate, i.e. any compound that exhibited greater % activation than that particular plate's cutoff parameter was declared active.
The inactive compounds of this assay have activity score range of 0 to 2 and active compounds range of activity score is 2 to 100.
The reported Pubchem_Activity_Score has been normalized to 100% of the highest observed primary activation value. Negative % activation values are reported as activity score zero.
List of Reagents:
Tango EDG6-bla U2OS cells (Invitrogen, part K1622)
GeneBLAzer FRET B/G Loading Kit (CCF4-AM) (Invitrogen, part K1025)
Probenecid (Sigma, part P8761)
Freestyle Expression Medium (Assay media; Invitrogen, part 12338-018)
McCoy's 5A Medium (modified) (1X) (Invitrogen, 16600-082)
Fetal Bovine Serum, dialyzed (Invitrogen, part 26400-036)
NEAA (Invitrogen, part 1114-050)
Penicillin-Streptomycin-Neomycin antibiotic mix (Invitrogen, part 15140-122)
Sodium Pyruvate (Invitrogen, part 11360-070)
PBS without calcium or magnesium (Invitrogen, part 14190-136)
HEPES (Invitrogen, part 15630-080)
Trypsin/EDTA (Invitrogen, part 25300-054)
S1P (Avanti Polar Lipids, part 860492P)
Fatty Acid Free BSA (Calbiochem, part NC9734015)
Zeocin (Invitrogen, part R250-01)
Hygromycin (Invitrogen, part 10687-010)
Geneticin (Invitrogen, part 10131-027)
1536-well plates (Greiner, part 789072)
T175 tissue culture flasks (Corning, part 431080)
Due to the increasing size of the MLSCN compound library, this assay may have been run as two or more separate campaigns, each campaign testing a unique set of compounds. In this case, the results of each separate campaign were assigned "Active/Inactive" status based upon that campaign's specific compound activity cutoff value. All data reported were normalized on a per-plate basis. In this assay, S1P had a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of approximately 50 nM. Possible artifacts of this assay can include, but are not limited to: dust or lint located in or on wells of the microtiter plate, compounds that modulate beta-arrestin or BLA activity, and compounds that quench or emit fluorescence. All test compound concentrations reported above and below are nominal; the specific test concentration(s) for a particular compound may vary based upon the actual sample provided by the MLSMR.
** Test Concentration.
Data Table (Concise)