High-throughput multiplex screening for ABC transporter inhibitors: specifically ABCB1 screen, ABCG2 counter-screen
The three major types of multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins in humans include members of the ABCB, the ABCC and the ABCG subfamilies. These proteins influence oral absorption and disposition of a wide variety of drugs. As a result, their expression levels have important consequences for susceptibility to drug-induced side effects, interactions, and treatment efficacy. One of the most widely more ..
BioActive Compounds: 130
University of New Mexico Assay Overview:
Assay Support: 1R03MH081228-01A1
High-throughput multiplex screening for ABC transporter inhibitors
PI: Richard Larson MD, PhD
Assay Development: Irena Ivnitski-Steele PhD
Assay Implementation: Irena Ivnitski-Steele PhD, Terry Foutz, Anna Waller PhD, Mark Carter
Target Team Leader for the Center: Bruce Edwards, PhD (BEdwards@salud.unm.edu
Assay Background and Significance:
The three major types of multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins in humans include members of the ABCB, the ABCC and the ABCG subfamilies. These proteins influence oral absorption and disposition of a wide variety of drugs. As a result, their expression levels have important consequences for susceptibility to drug-induced side effects, interactions, and treatment efficacy. One of the most widely studied MDR-ABC transporter is P-glycoprotein (MDR or ABC B1 transporter). This protein functions to remove lipids and drugs as they intercalate and diffuse through the cell membrane. In addition to T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a variety of solid tumors, including those in breast and prostate and gastric cancer cells overexpress ABC B1. As a consequence of enhanced pump activity, these cells develop resistance to anthracyclins, vina-alkaloids, etoposide and paclitaxel [Kubota et al. 2001, Triller et al., 2006, Chuthapisith et al., 2007]. Another clinically important ABC transporter ABC G2, acts on a wide variety of anticancer agents, including the highly active transport of methotrexate (MTX). This high capacity high affinity pump transports newly developed antifolate agents and folate derivatives as well [Wielinga et al., 2005]. Individuals with high ABCG2 expression in leukemic blast cells have a higher probability of poor response to chemotherapy [Benderra et al. 2004, Steinbach et al. 2002, Suvannasankha et al. 2004, Uggla et al., 2005]. A third large drug transporter distantly related to P-glycoprotein and ABCG2 is MRP1 (ABCC1). Overexpression of MRP1, associated with poor treatment response, has been reported in a variety of hematological and solid tumors [Steinbach et al. 2002, Suvannasankha et al. 2004, Uggla et al. 2005, Larkin, et al. 2004] while other members of this protein family appear to participate in resistance to a narrower range of drugs [Ohno et al. 2001, Nooter et al. 1996]. All three of these transporters are expressed at relatively high levels in the blood-brain barrier, placenta, liver, gut, and kidney, and are increasingly recognized for their ability to modulate the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of xenobiotics in these tissues. Tumors are highly heterogenous and frequently develop multiple mechanisms of resistance. Multidrug efflux pumps provide the first line of defense.
The use of low toxicity ABC transporter inhibitors is a common treatment strategy to circumvent MDR in cancers [Gillet et al. 2007, O'Connor 2007]. The design of P-gp inhibitors has progressed through three generations. The second generation P-gp inhibitors (e.g. valspodar, biricodar) were associated with significant side effects and interaction with multiple ABC transporters. Though application of such inhibitors in combination with P-gp substrates showed therapeutic promise in animal models [Ozols et al. 1986, Horton et al. 1989, Arvello et al. 1993], follow up clinical studies have almost universally failed even with more specific third generation inhibitors [Perez-Thomas 2006, Szakacs et al. 2006]. A variety of modulators, such as cyclosporin A (CsA), quinine, trifluoperazine, droloxifene (Drol), tomoxifen (TmX), toremifene, desniuldipine (DNIG), verapamil, dexverapamil, PSC 833, and GF 120198, are now undergoing clinical trials.
Although definitive results for any of these compounds concerning their efficacy for multiple drug resistance has not been forthcoming, it is not surprising,given their specificity for other molecular targets, that many problems such as significant side effects, dose effects, and changes in chemotherapy pharmacokinetics are of constant concern and provide ample justification for identifying new classes of modulators and exploring the biology around them.
A duplex assay was constructed in which ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters were evaluated in parallel using flurosecent J-aggregate-forming lipophilic cation 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide as substrate. ABCB1-expressing cells (CCRF-Adr) were color-coded to allow their distinction from ABCG2-expressing cells(IgMXP3).
The assay was a high throughput no-wash procedure conducted in 384-well format micro plates in a total volume of 15.1 microliters dipsensed sequentially as follows: 1) JC-1 substrate (10 microliter/well); 2) test compound (0.1 microliter/well); 3) drug-resistant cells (5 microliter/well). CCRF-Adr cells (ABCB1) were color-coded with 0.5 ng/ml FarRed DDAO CellTrace SE (Invitrogen) for 15 min at room temperature, washed twice by centrifugation, then combined with unlabeled IgMXP3 cells (ABCG2) in the assay buffer. The label binds covalently to amine groups in cells and is detected at red fluorescence emission wavelengths of 665 +/- 10 nm upon excitation at 635 nm. Final in-well concentration of test compound was 6.6 micromolar and of cells was 3 million cells/ml (1:1 ratio of the two cell types). The plate contents were mixed, the plate rotated end-over-end at 4 RPM and 25 degrees C for 10 minutes, and then cell samples were immediately analyzed. Sample analysis was conducted with the HyperCyt(R) high throughput flow cytometry platform [Kuckuck, et al., 2001; Ramirez, et al., 2003]. Approximately 2 microliter volumes from each well were collected at a rate of approximately 40 samples per minute. This resulted in analysis of approximately 1,000 cells of each cell type from each well. Flow cytometric data of light scatter and fluorescence emission at 530 +/- 20 nm (FL1) and 665 +/- 10 nm (FL8) were collected via CyAn flow cytometer (Beckman Coulter). The resulting time-resolved single data file per plate was analyzed by IDLQuery software to determine the compound activity in each well.
The assay response range was defined by control wells containing Nicardipine (pump inhibitor, high fluorescence) or DMSO (no pump inhibition, low fluorescence).
Efflux pump activity was determined on the basis of the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of JC-1 fluorescent substrate detected in the green fluorescence channel (530 +/- no nm). Test compound % inhibition of efflux pump activity at each point was calculated as 100 x [1 - (MFI_PC - MFI_Test)/(MFI_PC - MFI_NC)] in which MFI_Test, MFI_PC and MFI_NC represent the MFI of cells in wells containing test compound, the average MFI of cells in positive control wells (maximum fluorescence intensity) and the average MFI of cells in negative control wells (minimum fluorescence intensity), respectively. PUBCHEM_ACTIVITY_SCORE is equal to the calculated percent inhibition, except when percent inhibition is greater than 100 and less than 0.
Zprime quality statistics were calculated as described in Zhang et al (1999). Each 384 well plate contained 32 positive control wells and 32 negative control wells that were used for the quality statistic calculations. Average Zprime equaled 0.74 +/- 0.1 for the entire screen of 193,717 compounds.
Compounds were deemed active in the percent inhibition was greater than 40%.
NIH Roadmap, NMMLSC, high-throughput flow cytometry, drug-resistance transporters, ABCB1, ABCG2, multiplex cell-based screening
** Test Concentration.
Data Table (Concise)